Type of protein participating in a modular regulatory structure (that is, tumor checkpoint), the aberrant activity of which is both necessary and sufficient for tumor cell state implementation and maintenance and which directly controls the transcriptional state of a tumor cell.
Any change in the DNA of a cell. Mutations may be caused by mistakes during cell division, or can be caused by exposure to DNA-damaging agents in the environment. Mutations can be harmful, beneficial, or have no effect. Certain mutations may lead to cancer or other diseases.