DNA methylation epitypes highlight underlying developmental and disease pathways in acute myeloid leukemia

DNA methylation patterns are stable at relapse except in a minority of cases.

Giacopelli et al. (2021) Genome Res. CC BY-NC 4.0

Giacopelli B, Wang M, Cleary A, Wu YZ, Schultz AR, Schmutz M, Blachly JS, Eisfeld AK, Mundy-Bosse B, Vosberg S, Greif PA, Claus R, Bullinger L, Garzon R, Coombes KR, Bloomfield CD, Druker BJ, Tyner JW, Byrd JC, Oakes CC.

Genome Research

March 11, 2021

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a molecularly complex disease characterized by heterogeneous tumor genetic profiles and involving numerous pathogenic mechanisms and pathways. Integration of molecular data types across multiple patient cohorts may advance current genetic approaches for improved sub-classification and understanding of the biology of the disease. Here we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation in 649 AML patients using Illumina arrays and identified a configuration of 13 subtypes (termed 'epitypes') using unbiased clustering. Integration of genetic data revealed that most epitypes were associated with a certain recurrent mutation (or combination) in a majority of patients, yet other epitypes were largely independent. Epitypes demonstrated developmental blockage at discrete stages of myeloid differentiation, revealing epitypes that retain arrested hematopoietic stem cell-like phenotypes. Detailed analyses of DNA methylation patterns identified unique patterns of aberrant hyper- and hypomethylation among epitypes, with variable involvement of transcription factors influencing promoter, enhancer, and repressed regions. Patients in epitypes with stem cell-like methylation features showed inferior overall survival along with upregulated stem cell gene expression signatures. We further identified a DNA methylation signature involving STAT motifs associated with FLT3-ITD mutations. Finally, DNA methylation signatures were stable at relapse for the large majority of patients, and rare epitype switching accompanied loss of the dominant epitype mutations and reversion to stem cell-like methylation patterns. These results demonstrate that DNA methylation-based classification integrates important molecular features of AML to reveal the diverse pathogenic and biological aspects of the disease.

Last updated: April 14, 2021