Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments

TARGET: Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments

TARGET applies a comprehensive genomic approach to determine molecular changes that drive childhood cancers. Investigators form a collaborative network to facilitate discovery of molecular targets and translate those findings into the clinic. TARGET is managed by NCI’s Office of Cancer Genomics and Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program.

Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments

News & Publications

Gene expression analyses from Gooskens et. al; TCF21 hypermethylation in genetically quiescent Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney. Oncotarget [Online], 6.18 (0): 15828-15841. Web. 13 Jul. 2015. To see the full figure and learn more, visit the manuscript.
July 13, 2015

Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney (CCSK) is a rare childhood tumor whose molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We analyzed a discovery set of 13 CCSKs for changes in chromosome copy...

A 40x image of a typical neuroblastoma with rosette formation. Image credit: Dr. Maria Tsokos, National Cancer Institute
June 29, 2015

The majority of patients with neuroblastoma have tumors that initially respond to chemotherapy, but a large proportion will experience therapy-resistant relapses. The molecular basis of this aggressive phenotype is unknown. Whole-genome sequencing of 23 paired diagnostic and relapse...

Robert J. Arceci, M.D., Ph.D. (Photograph courtesy of Phoenix Children’s Hospital)
June 22, 2015

It is with great sadness and a profound sense of loss that OCG recognizes the untimely passing of Dr. Robert J. Arceci. Dr. Arceci was a co-Principal Investigator for the Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) project within the TARGET...

Image of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Wright stained peripheral blood from a child. Image photographed by Christaras A and licensed via Wikimedia Commons. Links to publication page.
March 19, 2015

There is incomplete understanding of genetic heterogeneity and clonal evolution during cancer progression. Here we use deep whole-exome sequencing to describe the clonal architecture and evolution of 20 pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemias from diagnosis to relapse. We show that clonal...

Micrograph of a Wilms tumor stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
February 09, 2015

We report the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) to occur within SIX1/2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPGs) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates that...



Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of white blood cells, the cells in the body that normally fight infection.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer that originates in the bone marrow from immature white blood cells known as myeloblasts. About 25% of all children with leukemia have AML. 

Kidney Tumors

Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.


Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a cancer that arises in immature nerve cells of the sympathetic nervous system, primarily affecting infants and children.


Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of bone cancer in children and adolescents.

Last updated: July 13, 2015