The study reported that the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors occur within SIX1/2, and microRNA processing genes DGCR8 and DROSHA. SIX and miRNAPG mutations were reported to be associated with RAS activation.
Genomic profiling and analysis of patients with precursor B-cell ALL and those with Ph-like ALL showed that the genomic alterations that characterized Ph-like ALL might be amenable to inhibition with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
TARGET investigators used whole-exome, genome and transcriptome sequencing to determine the spectrum of somatic mutation in high-risk neuroblastoma.
Sequencing the tyrosine kinome and downstream signaling genes in high-risk pediatric ALL cases showed no somatic mutations aside from JAK mutations and 1 FLT3 mutation.
The study reported that alterations of the lymphoid transcription factor gene IKZF1 (IKAROS) are associated with a high risk of treatment failure in B-ALL and approximately 20% of B-ALL cases have genetic alterations that activate kinase signaling.
Several of the novel alterations induced cancerous phenotypes in cell lines and mouse xenograft models and demonstrated sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Stratifying ALL patients may improve clinical outcomes through the use of therapies targeted to the specific genetic alteration.
In the largest pediatric cancer genome sequencing effort reported to date, TARGET ALL researchers sequenced 120 candidate genes in 187 high-risk childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias (HR B-ALL).
In a letter published in Nature Genetics, pediatric researchers found that Native American ancestry is genetically linked with an increased risk of relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in children.
Through unsupervised clustering of gene expression profiling, TARGET researchers discovered eight unique cluster groups among patients with pediatric high-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Leaders from the NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) and the Children’s Oncology Group provided an overview of the most current childhood cancer statistics.